תורה ברשת
The Laws of Purim
הרב דוד ספרלינג
השיעור הועבר ע"י הרב דוד ספרלינג
שיעורים נוספים של המרצה ניתן למצוא כאן
1. The Fast Of Esther – The 13th of Adar is a fast from sunrise to nightfall (4.36am 􁪽
6.07pm in Jerusalem 5763). A person who will be hearing the Megilla on the night after
the fast, is forbidden to eat until after hearing the Megilla. In cases where this is difficult,
one can eat a little (without fixing a meal on bread or "mezonot") after nightfall before
hearing the Megilla.
2.The laws of this fast are more lenient than other fasts, and so pregnant and nursing
mothers, as well as the sick (or even those suffering from just major discomfort), do not
fast.
3. The community adds "Aneinu" prayer to the Amidah in Shomeiya Tefillah [as opposed
to the Chazzan who adds this as a blessing in and of itself] (Sephardim in Shacharit and
Minchah; Ashkenazim, the community adds only in Minchah). "Avinu Malkeinu" and
Tachanun are recited during Shacharit, but not during Minchah (unless the fast falls early
on the Thursday before Purim on Sunday). The Torah portion for a fast is read during
Shacharit and Minchah, (and the Ashkenazim read a Haftorah during Minchah).
4. Charity In Commemoration Of the Half Shekel – On the afternoon before Purim, one
gives money to charity (to the poor, charity organizations, or Torah institutions) in
commemoration of the half shekel that was given when the Temple stood. (If one did not
give then, one can donate during all the month of Adar). There are numerous customs
concerning this. In some places only men above the age of twenty donate, in others men
over the age of thirteen. In some places women also donate, and also charity is given in
the name of the children, and even pregnant women donate for their unborn child. One
who gave one year should continue to donate in following years, unless the custom was
begun explicitly for a limited time (and so it is correct to give bli neder – without this
being an obligation).
5. Ashkenazim customarily give three coins that are called "half" coins (in Israel the 50
agarot coins that are minted with "1/2" on them). The Sephardim are accustomed to give
the value of 9.6 grams of silver (according to the current market value). There are places
where the synagogue places three special coins on a tray, each person then buys the coins
by placing an amount of money in the tray (even less than the value of the special coins),
and acquiring the coins by lifting them up. The special coins are then donated back to
charity by replacing them on the tray "in commemoration of the half shekel", to be used
by the next person.
6. One should be careful not to say that the donation is for "the half shekel" as it is
forbidden to donate to the Temple in our days, but rather one should say "in
commemoration of the half shekel".
7. The Date Of Purim – in places that were surrounded by a wall in the days of Joshua,
("walled cities" – even if unwalled today), Purim is celebrated on the 15th of Adar. In
other places ("unwalled cities") Purim falls on the 14th of Adar. Today only Jerusalem is
definitely a "walled city", and the other ancient cities in Israel (Jaffo, Zefat, Tiberias, Bet
Lechem, Schem, Lod, Akron, Be'er Sheva, Gaza, Hebron, and others) customarily
celebrate both days from doubt (see below).
8. Those places that are adjacent and within view of a "walled city" also have the law of a
"walled city". Therefore all the new city of Jerusalem has the law of Purim on the 15th,
(there is some discussion of the distant suburbs such as Ramot – one should act in
accordance with the local Rabbi). Some people hold that this law of adjacency also
applies to the doubtfully walled cities (for example Tel Aviv, which is adjacent to Jaffo) –
one should celebrate the 14th only, unless there is a local custom to celebrate both days
from doubt.
9. Those who travel from place to place on the 14th and 15th are sometimes obligated on
the 14th, sometimes on the 15th, sometimes on both days, and sometimes on neither [but
it is not correct (and according to some opinions impossible) to travel so as to miss Purim
altogether]. The essence of the obligation depends on where one is at sunrise of the 14th
and 15th. If at sunrise of the 14th one is in an "unwalled" city, one is obligated in Purim
on the 14th even if one later travels to Jerusalem. So to if at sunrise of the 15th one is in a
"walled" city one is obligated in Purim on the 15th, even if one leaves the city later. From
this we see that one can be obligated in two days (being in Tel Aviv at sunrise of the
14th, and Jerusalem at sunrise of the 15th). There are many opinions in this matter, and
one is advised to consult with a Rabbi before traveling.
10. Places that are doubtfully "walled cities" (see 7 above), read the Megilla on both
days, but only recite the blessing on the 14th. In connection with the other
commandments and prayers of Purim, some say to perform them on both days, and some
say only to perform them on the 14th. It is fitting to be strict and perform them on both
days.
11. Prayer – "Al HaNissim" is added to all the prayer services (in the Amidah), as well as
to Birkat HaMazon (Grace after Meals). One who forgot to add it, and has already
finished the Amidah or Birkat HaMazon, does not need to repeat it. If one recalled that
they had forgotten it before the end, one adds "Yehi Ratzon Milfanecha SheTa'aseh Lanu
Nissim V'Niflaot KeShem SheAsitah LeAvatainu BeYamin HaHem B'zman HaZeh,
B'Yemay Mordechai V'Esther" etc, before "Oseh Shalom" at the end of the Amidah, or
one can add it near the end of Birkat HaMazon, in the form of "HaRachaman Hu Ya'aSeh
Lanu Nissim" etc). One does not recite Tachanun, neither on the afternoon preceding the
14th nor on the 14th or 15th, in both walled and unwalled cities. The other changes and
additions to the services are printed in the Siddur. Hallel and YaAleh VeYavoh are not
recited.
12. Reading the Megilla 􁪽 Everyone is obligated to read (or hear) the Megilla – men,
women, and children who have reached the age of understanding. The Megilla is read
both in the night (directly after nightfall, until the morning if need be; and the day, from
sunrise, until sunset if necessary 􁪽 but one should try to fulfill one's obligation as soon
as possible).
13. It is forbidden to eat before hearing the Megilla, both in the night and the day. In
cases where this causes hardship, one can snack on a small amount of bread or cakes etc,
up to an eggs worth, or any amount of other foods.
14. The best way to perform the mitzvah is to hear the Megilla amongst a large
congregation, or at least ten men (or women). However the mitzvah if fulfilled even by
reading the Megilla alone. A woman can read for herself, or even for other women, but
she should not read for a man, unless there is no other possibility. A child cannot read for
an adult.
15. One must hear every word of the Megilla. One should not hear via a microphone,
telephone, or radio [some permit this in a time of need]. If one did not hear a word (or
more) one should read the word(s) from a Megilla in front of them (even a printed one).
However this must be done in such a way as to ensure that every word is heard in its'
correct order 􁪽 that is one should pronounce the words they missed, and keep reading
until they catch up to the reader, so the reader's recital continues from where they stopped
reading.
16. One should be careful that those who stamp on Haman's name do not cause others to
miss hearing even a single word. And those who go overboard with noisemaking are
guilty of several varied sins.
17. It is forbidden to speak from the start of the first blessing before the Megilla, until the
after the end of the after blessing "Harav et Riveinu". If one spoke during this time, and
because of this missed hearing even one word of the Megilla, one needs to repeat the
entire Megilla.
18. The Blessing Over the Megilla 􁪽 one needs to have intention to fulfill their
obligation by the reader's blessings (and as such one does not say "Baruch Hu U'Baruch
Shemo" during the blessings). At women's readings, the custom is for one of the women
to bless "Lishmoah Mikrah Megilla" (or "Lishmoah Megilla") and not the regular "Al
Mikrah Megilla" (Ashkenazim). There are some Sephardim who do not recite a blessing
at all at a women's reading, and some recite "Lishmoah Megilla". Concerning the blessing
after, some Ashkenazim do not recite it unless there are ten men, and others recite it when
there are ten or more women, (and this is the Sephardi custom).
19. Most of the Ashkenazim recite "Shehechiyanu" both before the reading at night and at
day, and one should have intention to include the mitzvoth of Mishloach Manot, and
Gifts to the Poor, as well as the Purim meal in this blessing. Sephardim only recite this
blessing before the evening reading.
20. Mishloach Manot – Sending of Portions 􁪽 Everybody is obligated to send at least
two portions to one Jew. This can only be fulfilled during the day and not the night.
21. A man should send to a man, and a woman to a woman. If one sent to a family as a
whole, one need not be particular about whether the man gave to a man, and visa versa. A
married woman should send portions herself, and not rely on that which her husband
sends; and so too the children in the family should send their own portions, and not rely
on the head of the household. One should educate even small children in this, as well as
the other mitzvot of Purim.
22. The portions need to be something fitting for eating or drinking as is (without further
cooking). The two portions also need to be different from each other, however it is
enough that they have different tastes, such as two types of cake, or two different types of
meat etc (and they do not have to have separate blessings). One should send portions that
are fittingly substantial (both in the eyes of the giver and in the eyes of the receiver).
23. It is good manners to reciprocate and send portions to those who sent to you.
24. In order to fulfill all the opinions one should send at least one set of portions to
someone who is celebrating Purim on the same day as you.
25. One should not send portions to someone who is in the year of mourning for their
parents, (or the month of mourning for other close relatives). One may send to the other
members of the mourner's family (who are not in mourning). However, those in
mourning are obligated to send portions.
26. From the letter of the law one does not have to send portions via a messenger 􁪽
however there are those who have this custom, and send their portions via messengers,
even via children or non-Jews. One should ensure that the receiver knows who sent the
portions.
27. Matanot LeEvyonim 􁪽 Gifts to the Poor 􁪽 Every person is obligated to give charity
to two poor Jews. This can only be fulfilled during the day and not the night, though one
can give the money to a messenger any time before Purim day in order that the messenger
give the money to the poor during the day of Purim itself.
28. It is better to increase one's gifts to the poor, rather than increasing the amounts of
Mishloach Manot (portions) and the size of one's Purim Meal. This is because there is no
greater joy than to gladden the hearts of the poor, the orphans, the widow, and the
stranger. In gladdening the hearts of the needy, one acts in accordance with G-d Himself,
as it says "To enliven the spirit of the lowly, and to enliven the hearts of the
downtrodden" 􁪽 Rambam.
שיעורים נוספים ניתן למצוא בקטגוריות הבאות: הלכה
תאריך העלאה:ט׳ בטבת ה׳תשע״ג
22/12/12
צרו איתנו קשר גם באמצעות הוואטצאפ